Differential approach to structural analysis of main components of pedagogical abilities
N. A. Aminov
Automated psychodiagnostical system for pedagogical abilities evaluation is presented. Its effectiveness depends on theoretical model of main components of special abilities, the means of empirical validity of the model control, existing test bank. The conforming to abovementioned criteria makes it possible to point out systemforming factor and corresponding symptomocomplex in the structure of pedagogical abilities.
Psychological state of high school students changing their social environment
Yu. m. Desyatnikova
The results of investigation in high school students of psychological resistance to the stress of emigration are presented. The author suggests a test combining the principles of projective tests and personality questionnaires which provides a quantitative measure for attitudes towards search activity, stereotype behavior, passive renunciation of search, and panic. It is shown that attitude towards search activity is the most protective one. The study is oriented to both diagnostic and correction of different psychological adjustment syndromes.
Different methods of geometrical problemsТ solving as a means to develop schoolchildren's thinking
K. V. Voskanyan
The author argues that analytical way of thinking in geometrical problems' solving and in graphic interpretation plays the most important role in the development of thinking in general. Starting point of analytical thinking is the notion to be found and its equivalent features. The latter are the determinants of the level of thinking.
Appreciative aspect of conflict communication
T. N. Oushakova, V. V. Latynov
The authors analyze psychologically the communicative production and texts produced during political conflict discussions in Russia,1992-1994 and 1907 (The Second State Duma). It is found that one of the most common intentions is to apprise events, persons and their actions. Conflict communications are characterized by negative evaluation of the opponents and positive evaluation - of ownself and one's supporters. The types of mental "cliches " that appear in such a communication are pointed out. A simple method for quantitative evaluation of appreciative function is offered; the latter can be traced not only in contemporary discussions, but in those of almost a century ago: it shows universal character of the phenomenon.
General characteristics of thinking and mathematical thinking In particular
The author discusses empirical and theoretical levels of thinking in general and mathematical thinking in particular. The latter was studied on schoolchildren 11-17 years old. Analytical features of mathematical thinking correspond with analytical, planning and reflexive levels of general thinking. Planning level of mathematical thinking was found in schoolchildren with planning and reflexive levels of general thinking. The author concludes that the highest level of mathematical thinking is determined by existing general level.
Twodimensional space of communicative interaction models
M. V. Molokanov
Basic factors for description and evaluation of effectiveness in social activity are described (interest in another person and dominance). They are used for a new classification of social professions as well as for communicative interaction models for a psychologist to choose (diagnostical, expert, medical, pedagogical, consultative, etc.).
Social competence as psychotherapy goal: A problem of Iimage in social disturbance situation
A problem of disturbances of social competence in citizens of the new Federal Lands of Germany (former GDR) after reunification of the state is discussed. The concept of social competence is considered to be connected, on the one hand, with a degree of person's competence and, on the other hand, with situation requirements and changes in social structure. Based on empirical studies of mental health in population of Eastern Germany, it is concluded that an innovative psychotherapy strategy is needed for treatment of social competence disturbances. Significant social conceptions in socialist and in postindustrial societies are regarded as being conflated with goals of psychotherapy.
Selfregulation In the situation of social upheaval
A. P. Kornilov
The article is inspired by J. MehlТs publication and discusses some problems connected to the ways of social competence increase in the situation of social upheaval: it is necessary to consider contexts of selfidentification and selfregulation of a person; it is impossible to make the psychotherapist to solve patient's problem of selfdetermination in new social conditions.
A. A. Oukhtomsky's contribution to psychological physiology
V. P. Zinchenko
The author offers main features of an address on 125th anniversary of A. A. Oukhtomsky, made on a conference, Rybinsk, June 1995.
V. P. Zinchenko
The article reconstructs events influencing A. V. Zaporozhets' psychological orientation and finally leading to his psychological specialization. A. V. ZaporozhetsТ scientific biography is outlined.
A. V. ZaporozhetsТ Ideas on flchookhikl's personality development
D. M. Aranovskaya'DubovIs, E. V. Zaika
The authors analyze and systematize A. V. Zaporozhets' views on schoolchild's personality features (morals, social determinants, emotional regulation of behavior, etc. ) in the course of play, productive and artistic activity.
On early works of LV. Strakhov
S. A. Bogdanchikov
For the first time Professor I. V. Strakhov's nine early works (1926-1930) are considered. Four of them are dealing with practical matters of pedagogical psychology. The rest is dedicated to critical analysis of actual for the time theoretical problems: problem of types, problem of theoretical method, problem of corresponding of descriptive and explaining psychology. Special attention is paid to marxism's role in early I. V. Strakhov's works.
The comparison of personal features in Russian and American students
T. V. Kornilova, E. L. Grigorenko
Comparative analysis of Russian and American studentsТ personal features estimated by Edwards Personal Preference Schedule is presented. Culturological context of differences in psychological profiles of two samples is discussed.
Activity volitional regulation disturbances in schizophrenics and psychopaths
Experimental study on interrelation between volitional activity regulation and manysided personal sense of volitional action is presented. The possibility to compensate volitional activity disfunction is found in the personalmotivational new formations; the need to conform to social norms and to be accepted by the others.
The approaches to behavior changes due to medical preventive program in the USA
O. S. Kopina, A. MacAlister
Theoretical background and applied methods of behavior change are considered. Among theoretical models used are the follows: transtheotical one (J. Prochaska and C. DiClemente), health beliefs (I. Rosenstock, H. Leventhal et al.) and consumer's information processing (J. Bettman); much attention is paid to A. BanduraТs theory of social learning. As successful application of theoretical notions the medical preventive program "A Su Salud " is described.